The county is partly in the diocese of Clogher, partly in that of Armagh, but chiefly in that of Derry. For purposes of civil jurisdiction it is divided into the baronies of Clogher, Dungannon, Strabane, and Omagh. It contains the borough and market-town of Dungannon, the assize and market-town of Omagh, the disfranchised boroughs and market and post-towns of Strabane and Clogher; the disfranchised borough and market-town of Augher; the market and post-towns of Cookstown, Stewartstown, Newtown-Stewart, Aughnacloy, Caledon, Ballygawley, Castlederg, and Moy; the market-towns of Drumquin, Beregh, and Trillick; and the post-towns of Fintona, Five-mile-town, Dunamanagh, and Coal-Island. The principal villages are Claudy, Coagh, Dromore, Gartin, Pomeroy, Six-mile-cross (each of which has a penny post), Killeter, Newmills, Termonmaguirk, and Tullyhoge.

It sent ten members to the Irish parliament, two for the county, and two each for the boroughs of Dungannon, Strabane, Augher, and Clogher. Since the Union its representatives in the Imperial parliament have been two for the county, and one for the borough of Dungannon: the election for the county is held at Omagh. The county constituency, as registered to the commencement of the year 1837, was, 322 freeholders of £50, 346 of £20, and 1805 of £10; 1 rent-charger of £50, and 30 of £20; 50 leaseholders of £20, and 46 of £10; making a total of 2600 electors.

Tyrone is included in the north-west circuit: the assizes are held at Omagh, where the county gaol and court-house are situated: general sessions of the peace are held alternately at Omagh and Strabane, for the Omagh district, which comprises the baronies of the same name: those for the district of Dungannon, which comprises the baronies of Dungannon and Clogher, are held at Dungannon and Clogher alternately. The local government is vested in a lieutenant, 13 deputy-lieutenants, and 106 other magistrates, together with the usual county officers, including two coroners. There are 29 constabulary police stations, having in the whole a force of an inspector, a paymaster, 2 stipendiary magistrates, 5 officers, 32 constables, 189 men, and 5 horses.

The district lunatic asylum is in the city of Londonderry, the county infirmary at Omagh, the fever hospital at Strabane; and there are dispensaries at Termonmaguirk, Stewartstown, Augher, Clogher, Castlederg, Caledon, Dungannon, Newtown-Slewart, Strabane, Dunamanagh, Drumquin, Fintona, Coagh, Dromore, Trillick, Omagh, Gortin, Ballygawley, and Cookstown, supported by equal Grand Jury presentments and private subscription. The Grand Jury presentments for 1836 amounted to £35,331. 13. 2., of which £4031. 11. 10. was for roads, bridges, &c., being the county charge; £18,952. 1. 2 ½. for the same, being the baronial charge; £5450. 17. 8. for public buildings, charities, officers' salaries, and incidents; £2574. 6. 2 ½. for the police; and £4322. 16. 3. for the repayment of advances made by Government. In the military arrangements the county is in the northern district, and contains one barrack for infantry at Omagh.

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