The county is partly in the diocese of Killaloe, partly in those of Dublin and Glendalough, partly in that of Kildare, but chiefly in those of Ossory and Leighlin. For purposes of civil jurisdiction it is divided into the baronies of Ballyadams, Cullinagh, Maryborough East, Maryborough West, Portnehinch, Slievemargue, Stradbally, Tinnehinch, and Upper Ossory. It contains the greater part of the borough and market-town of Portarlington; the disfranchised borough, market, and assize town of Maryborough; the ancient corporate and market and post-town of Ballinakill; the market and post-towns of Mountmellick, Mountrath, Stradbally, and Abbeyleix; the post-towns of Burros-in-Ossory, Rathdowney, Ballybrittas, Clonaslee, and Ballyroan; and the suburb of the borough of Carlow called Graigue: the largest villages are those of Ballylinan, Castletown, Emo, Newtown and Arles.

It sent eight members to the Irish parliament, two for the county at large, and two for each of the boroughs of Portarlington, Maryborough, and Ballinakill. Since the Union it has been represented by three members, two for the county, and one for Portarlington: the election for the county takes place at Maryborough. The constituency, as registered up to Feb. 1st, 1836, consisted of 405 £50, 270 £20, and 1210 £10, freeholders; 5 £50, 16 £20, and 97 £10, leaseholders; 26 £50, and 72 £20, rent-chargers; and 37 clergymen of £50, in right of their respective incumbencies, 3 of £20, and 2 of £10; making a total of 2143 registered voters. Queen's county is included in the Home Circuit: the assizes are held at Maryborough; and general sessions of the peace at Maryborough, Mountmellick, Mountrath, Stradbally, Burros-in-Ossory, and Abbeyleix, twice in the year at each of these places. The county gaol is at Maryborough, and there are bridewells in Burros-in-Ossory, Stradbally, and Abbeyleix.

The local government is vested in a lieutenant, 18 deputy-lieutenants, and 82 other magistrates; besides whom there are the usual county officers, including four coroners. There are 42 stations of the constabulary police, having a force of a sub-inspector, 9 chief officers, 45 sub-constables, 291 men and 15 horses; besides which there are three stations of the peace preservation police. The amount of the Grand Jury presentments, in 1835, was £21,575. 15. 7., of which £293. 16. 0. was for the roads, bridges &c., of the county at large; £4124. 16. 0 ¼. for those of the baronies; £9835. 15. 0 ¾. for public buildings, charities, officers' salaries, and incidents; £6680. 8. 2. for the police; and £541. 0. 4. for the repayment of advances made by Government.

The district lunatic asylum for the Queen's and King's counties, Westmeath, and Longford, is at Maryborough; as is also the county infirmary, and there are dispensaries at Abbeyleix, Ballybrittas, Ballymoyler, Ballinakill, Clondonagh, Errill, Mountrath, Mountmellick, Newtown, Coleraine, Portarlington, Rathdowney, Stradbally, Swan, Ballickmoyler, Burros-in-Ossory, and Clonaslee, which are supported by Grand Jury presentments and private subscriptions, in the proportion of one third of the former to two-thirds of the latter. In the military arrangements it is included in the eastern district, and contains one barrack for infantry at Maryborough, constructed for the reception of 61 non-commissioned officers and men.

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